As head of global marketing for the AEC Industry at Dassault Systèmes, Mr. Moriwaki launches and promotes groundbreaking Industry Solution Experiences including "Optimized Construction," "Façade Design for Fabrication," and "Civil Design for Fabrication." He is a member of buildingSMART.
February 5th, 2015 by Akio Moriwaki
The following post is an excerpt from Technological Changes Brought by BIM to Façade Design.
IT and Façade Design
To meet the requirements for energy-efficient, green, and sustainable buildings, and respond to the increasingly serious shortage of contractors and necessary increase of cost, industrialization of façade design engineering is one of the development trends of the architectural envelope industry. Industrialization of façade design engineering must be promoted by the industry and, in turn, its improvement can boost promotion.
CAD and VR
Since the birth of CAD in the last century, engineers have abandoned manual drawing and turned to electronic drawing. This has changed traditional design methods and brought the first revolution in the façade design engineering field.
To manage the CAD data, information technology also underwent a three-stage evolution from CAD file management, to CAD database management, to product data management (PDM). PDM is an integrated working mode that can provide a façade design collaboration environment for sharing, so that designers can work on the same database, reducing unnecessary condition transfer and confirmation and fully sharing information resources.
The rapid development of three-dimensional modeling and virtual reality technology helps improve communication efficiency among the multiple parties involved in façade design.
The visual expression of a three-dimensional model can help architects and façade designers freely exchange ideas and deliberate on the designed volume, shape, façade, and exterior space throughout the design, but the aforesaid façade surface model cannot hold more design information for construction and installation.
In addition to the physical dimensions of the architectural envelope and required materials, design information also includes wind pressure resistant strength, seismic resistance, air tightness, water tightness, transformation, construction technology, heat transfer coefficient, etc. Indetermination of such information will lead to poor efficiency in subsequent work, such as building estimate and budget, fabrication, field installation, etc.
VDC and BIM
Industry demands promote the continuous integration of three-dimensional geometry-based modeling technology, virtual reality technology, and BIM technology, and development toward integrated application.
Virtual design and construction (VDC) is another concept becoming popular in the engineering construction industry. It requires, through the multidisciplinary parametric models provided by design, construction, operation, and maintenance teams in project construction, integration of building facility information, the construction process, and the management organization to ensure the achievement of general management objectives for the project.
If the VDC management concept can be implemented, we will be able to capture and reuse data from conceptual design to prefabrication and even in downstream processes, and apply the data to the entire process from concept design, to modular construction, to component prefabrication.
Then, we will have the chance for “building industrialization.”
BIM is one of the core technologies of implementing VDC. BIM technology is highly correlated with industrialization of façade design engineering logically.
Based on BIM, the carrier of building information, not only the visual design, multidisciplinary integration correction, panel optimization analysis, and quantity calculation for the architectural envelope, can be possible.
A breakthrough can be made, specifically, the mode of documentation in design delivery in the traditional building industry serves no one well. Instead, the panel fabrication drawing can be directly generated and the component fabrication data can be directly extracted from the design model, which makes possible the paperless design and plant fabrication of the curtain wall unit.
BIM technology has become the inevitable choice for industrialized development of the architectural envelope industry.
BIM-based façade design features Parametric design
BIM parametric design changes all the elements of a façade fabrication to a functional variable, and then, by changing the function, or to say, by changing the algorithm, drives the façade panel shape to change, thus creating different building design schemes.
As an art of building, façade design fundamentally has an anti-logic basis. As aesthetic theory goes, there is no debate for taste. Sticking to conventional thoughts will never lead to the palace of art.
However, parametric design is not contradictory to traditional building design. It is oriented to the future, and has many unimaginable forms. It is a tool that can inspire designers.
In BIM parametric design, all real attributes of façade fabrication components are given a parametric simulation and calculation, as well as related data statistics. In BIM parametric design, a façade component is not only a virtual geometric component, but also has other geometric attributes, such as component material, thermal performance, cost, as well as purchase information, weight, installation number, etc.
The significance of BIM parametric design is that we can, according to different design parameters, quickly conduct calculations and statistical analyses on modeling, layout, energy conservation, evacuation, etc. and then give priority to the most appropriate scheme.
This is where BIM parametric design differs from ordinary parametric design that is only for the realization of geometric modeling.
It is noteworthy that the concept of parameterization is different from the concept of parametric design.
Parameterization refers to the modeling capability of BIM software, which is an important guarantee for realization of parametric design. BIM software applicable to façade design must, first of all, provide “accurate” BIM capability to ensure that the modeling accuracy of small BIM components, such as round hole, bent piece, etc., is within the allowable plant fabrication error range.
The American Institute of Architects (AIA) uses level of detail (LOD) to define the accuracy of building components in BIM. According to LOD, BIM evolves from an approximate model to an accurate completed model through the progress of project, and the model accuracy is from the rough to the subtle:
For an ordinary building design, when the model accuracy is within LOD100 to LOD300, the design delivery can be completed; but for a façade design, to ensure the design delivery model can be applied in subsequent plant fabrication, the modeling capability of the BIM software must reach LOD400.
Knowledge-based visual design
A BIM-based three-dimensional virtual design environment helps quickly transfer design information and simulated information to project partners, so as to improve their communication efficiency, make possible WYSIWYG (what you see is what you get), and reduce economic losses caused by redesign. Visualization can be used for design clarification of detail structure joints, such as the façade panel edge, corner, hole, junction, and beam bottom flashing and trim. Besides, visual display can help quickly discover any conflicts among disciplines and improve design quality.
BIM visualization is automatically generated via the information for entity components. We can have the multi-view sectional drawings and axonometric drawings of a curtain wall model automatically generated to transfer information.
There are correlative and feedback relations among the components in such a “tridimensional wall.”
When a façade design engineer modifies a component, all the views in relation to the component will be automatically updated, saving us the trouble of modifying the plan, elevation, and section respectively.
The “correlative” visual feature is conducive to improving communication efficiency and also improving design engineer work efficiency, solving the long-standing problem of discrepancies among, omissions in, and incompletion of drawings.
From concept design, to modeling design detailing, to plant fabrication, to the final installation, the curtain wall is involved in many steps and covers both building and mechanical fabrication fields. In most cases, data cannot be smoothly connected, and data chain breaking may occur.
Based on data chain inheritability underlined by detailed BIM design, and with BIM as carrier, the “top-down” design idea can help accurately get the upstream curved surface modeling data and also accurately coordinate fabrication.
For “top-down” BIM design, it is required to first construct a “top basic skeleton” of the design, and then make copies, modifications, and detailing based on this “top basic skeleton” in the subsequent design process, finally completing the detailed design.
For example, the entire façade design engineering of a project is the highest-level “top basic skeleton”. The tower, floor and other parts can be broken down into several levels of “top basic skeleton” and each can show the geometric shape and spatial position of the façade panels in the part, and reflect the geometric constraint relation with other “top basic skeletons.”
Thus, the “top basic skeleton” is the core of the detailed “top-down” façade design development, and also the bridge and link for the interrelation among façade panel components.
The parametric modeling capability of BIM software is the basis for the smooth development of detailed “top-down” design.
In BIM-based parametric modelling, design can be automatically modified by parameter driving. There is an obvious corresponding relation and global correlation between the parameters and the controlled sizes of the model, so that the transfer of model data changes from and to different levels enjoys uniqueness and instantaneity. The “top-down” BIM design has two main characteristics:
The geometric modeling of the façade fabrications can be easily transformed to building components with real attributes. When we change parameters to make geometric shape change, building components change accordingly, which relates visual shape to real façade fabrication components, so that the visual model is transformed to a real “information model”. In the detailed design of a metal curtain wall, for instance, BIM-base technology can help, according to architect’s requirements, generate a large complex curved surface, easily divide the curved surface, and cut the shape into small, simple-technology, material-saving curved panels suitable for mass production.
Then, via sheet metal unfolding, turn them into drawings of plan view size, and make perform cutting and blanking with fewer errors or error free. Furthermore, using the building components with real attributes, an enterprise can gradually enrich and complete its parametric curtain wall component library, conducive to accumulation and reuse of enterprise knowledge.
After the shapes and positions of “top basic skeleton” are satisfactory, optimizing special-shaped curved panels can be done to meet the requirements of complex surfaces for fabrication, transportation, installation, and cost.
The façade designer modifies the shapes of curved panels by parameter driving, and, within the allowable visual error range, replaces double curved surfaces with single curved surfaces, and curved surfaces with flat surfaces, to generate a standard, simple façade fabrication wherever possible. In the meantime, the façade designer must give consideration to cost, construction difficulty, physical performance, and nice appearance.
For instance, the façade designer must take into consideration the supply situation for panels and the fabrication parameters of numerical control machine tools, and calculate the maximum sizes of panels, for purposes of gradual optimization and balance between nice look and cost efficiency.
The reason why BIM software can enable panel optimization lies in its excellent parametric modeling capability and its real-time data extraction capability.
Because the façade model contains geometric information (about panels, keels, connecting pieces, supports, and embedded parts), material information, and management information, when the façade panel shape changes, the corresponding material list and cost information is generated quickly. Because the cost of a special-shaped, curved-surface façade panel is uncertain, the adjustment of the curtain wall shape will definitely change a series of factors, including component cost and fabrication requirements.
BIM can correlate all the factors to form a data model with a dynamic update function, which is used to continuously improve and optimize the previous curved-surface façade models, compare the cost indicators for different design schemes in real time according to the output tabular bills of quantities, and, through a step-by-step iterative loop, finally make possible the balance between nice look and cost efficiency.
Automatic professional correction
As façade design engineering becomes more and more complex, there is a trend of cross-disciplinary cooperation in façade design. When the main structure is nearly completed, façade engineering can start, together with electromechanical engineering.
Façade design is closely related to other disciplines in terms of spatial position. BIM can change the traditional mode-of-work coordination among architects, structural engineers, and façade design engineers, and integrate the BIM models of different disciplines for interdisciplinary collision detection to discover the geometric position conflicts among different disciplines in advance.
For instance, through interdisciplinary collision detection, we can determine:
In another instance, we can examine whether the positions of large trimmings and logos are matched with the façade fabrication structure to determine whether there are any conflicts between the building and the façade fabrication.
Changes brought by BIM-based design to subsequent processes
Model-based design delivery
Model-based design delivery is one of the important means of industrialization of the architectural envelope industry. As façade fabrication is mostly customized in plants, design and fabrication are closely combined. Compared with traditional manufacturing, façade panel units enjoy a higher degree of customization, which is reflected by not only different designs for different projects but also different façade panels even in a project, fast and flexible production is needed.
Apparently, the mass production based on standardization and regularization of façade panel units is not the mainstream direction of industrialization of façade design engineering.
BIM-based design delivery can help avoid information loss in the transformation of two-dimensional design to three-dimensional fabrication model, and accurately transfer the façade design data to the numerical control machine tools, directly used for façade fabrication.
Therefore, the complete, accurate transfer of design data and automatic digital fabrication can not only improve building quality, but also reduce the huge waste arising from the design to different fabrication steps, which may be the industrialization development trend of the future architectural envelop industry.
Recently, unitized façade fabrication is increasingly being applied. Because unitized façade panels are fabricated and assembled in workshops, the builders working at the construction site must have a good knowledge of the façade panels for different façades and of different floor heights and types, so as to have them correspond to the right positions.
After the detailed BIM-based façade design is completed, the components, such as unit panels, keel frames, and irregular profiles, can be given unique codes according to data planning; then the façade model of the whole building is assembled, and the data can be extracted to generate a material list. In the material list, each component has a unique number.
Blanking, fabrication, and management of material placement are done according to the numbers and the units are quickly assembled according to the standard unit template drawings.
It is required to note the information about fabrication, transportation, and installation direction and sequence in the façade panels. BIM means can then be employed to preassemble the façade panel to better arrange the multi-operational construction plan and installation sequence, scientifically create site planning, reasonably arrange the construction period, improve installation quality, and reduce the idling of the labor force.
Excerpted from Technological Changes Brought by BIM to Façade Design
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January 29th, 2015 by Akio Moriwaki
The Evolution of Façade Design
The first building introduced with a curtain wall was the Crystal Palace in the Great Exhibition held in London in 1851.
The Crystal Palace in the Great Exhibition, London, 1851, pioneered façade design. For the exhibition hall for most exhibits, a greenhouse-like frame glass structure was adopted, which not only rendered the Crystal Palace the most glorious of all exhibits, but also pioneered façade design engineering.
January 22nd, 2015 by Akio Moriwaki
by Vicki Speed
From a residential high-rise in New York City to low-cost hotels in Europe, the application of prefabricated and modular objects and systems continues to capture the interest of owners, architects, contractors, fabricators and product manufacturers in the building industry.
Around the world, prefabrication proponents are finding ways to apply offsite construction techniques that go way beyond repeatable systems such as bathroom pods or mechanical pipe rack to more volumetric, pioneering, semi-customized solutions that address a wide range of common construction challenges.
January 15th, 2015 by Akio Moriwaki
The following is the introductory section of “Technological Changes Brought by BIM to Façade Design”
With the continuous progress of building industry technologies and people’s constant pursuit of sustainable buildings, Building Information Modeling (BIM) has been a new subject heatedly discussed and explored in the building industry.
Thanks to its advantages of visualization, coordination, simulation, optimization, and drawing-making, BIM has sparked great changes in engineering construction, and is becoming widely popular in Asian countries.
Countries including the U.S., the U.K., Singapore, South Korea, and Japan have issued BIM guidance standards for the application and development of BIM.
January 8th, 2015 by Akio Moriwaki
The following is a reprint of a Compass: The 3DEXPERIENCE Magazine article by Vicki Speed.
The Permasteelisa Group, based in Italy, is a leading worldwide contractor in the engineering, manufacture and installation of architectural envelopes and interior systems.
Compass spoke to Permasteelisa IT project manager Federico Momesso and communication manager Massimiliano Fanzaga about how the company is adopting more standardized technologies and processes to better meet the construction industry’s growing demand for customized building systems on short timelines.
January 1st, 2015 by Akio Moriwaki
Renovating and retrofitting existing buildings can increase their longevity, reduce their energy use and beautify or modernize.
With commercial buildings that need renovation, “usually the target is to have a result that’s aesthetically nice, healthy and at the least cost,” says Marc LaFrance, energy analyst, buildings sector, at the International Energy Agency. “If somebody comes from that approach but says, ‘I want the least-energy-consuming building possible within my budget,’ that would lead to a different set of measures.”
December 25th, 2014 by Akio Moriwaki
A jungle is green and leafy, and the urban jungle should be the same, right?
Since 2010, more people live in cities than in the countryside for the first time in human history. The trend is expected to speed up in developing countries, with more than 60% of the world’s population living in urban areas by mid-century, the United Nations predicts.
Bringing nature into cities can make urban environments more sustainable as well as more aesthetic, more comfortable, and healthier.
“Many architects today already claim to do green design, some to a greater level of authenticity than others. I contend that in the next five to 10 years just about every architect and student will do green design as second nature in their work,” says Ken Yeang, a principal with T.R. Hamzah and Yeang, a Malaysian architectural firm focusing on ecoarchitecture, and of Ken Yeang Design International in the U.K. “Green design is just one of the criteria for good design.”
Architects often see green design as a matter of certification, such as the U.S. Green Building Council’s LEED, or Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design, or the Green Building Initiative’s Green Globes, or the Building Research Establishment’s Environmental Assessment Method (BREEAM) in the U.K. Beyond aiming for certification, “I take the holistic view of an ecologist,” he says. “I see green design as bio-integrating everything that we as humans make and do on the planet with the natural environment in a benign and seamless way.”
That requires integrating flora and fauna, water, humans, and the built environment in a holistic way. “We start design by looking at the ecology of the land and see how we can bring more nature back to a location and bio-integrate nature with the physical built environment,” Mr. Yeang says.
The Solaris, designed by Mr. Yeang and part of the Fusionopolis research and development park in Singapore, has more than 8,000 square meters (9,567 square yards) of landscaping—13% more than the original site—thanks to roof gardens, planted terraces, and a 1.5-kilometer (0.9-mile) ramp of continuous vegetation that spirals up the 15-story building’s facade, helping to insulate as well as offering a range of habitats that enhances the locality’s biodiversity.
The idea is spreading. A primary school and gymnasium in the Paris suburb of Boulogne-Billancourt, now under construction, was designed by architects Chartier-Dalix to be covered with a living shell and house local flora and fauna.
Argentine architect Emilio Ambasz built a multi-use government office building in Fukuoka, Japan, with 14 one-story terraces that make the one-million-square-foot building look like a green hill rising from the park in front of it. Mr. Ambasz also renovated the headquarters of ENI in Rome with curtains of vegetation.
Basel, Switzerland, has required since 2002 that flat roofs be covered with vegetation, in part to save energy and in part to protect biodiversity. While the peregrine falcon, one of the first species on the U.S. endangered species list in 1974, rebounded in part through urban nesting programs to nearly 100,000 birds world-wide today, less-glamorous endangered species, from spiders to beetles, also benefit from the increase in habitat. In the U.K., the Bat Conservation Trust has published a landscape and urban design guide for bats and biodiversity.
A green exterior is nice, but what goes inside—the design and materials—are important, too. “The building and products sector are seeing that environmental issues are moving up the agenda,” says Martin Charter, professor of innovation and sustainability at the Centre for Sustainable Design at the University for the Creative Arts in Farnham, U.K. “Construction, buildings and building products are associated with high carbon dioxide emissions on a macro level and big end-of-life waste issues. The sector does have a big-life cycle impact, not just in extractive phase but at other stages of life cycle as well.”
Concrete produces as much as a tenth of industry-generated greenhouse gas emissions. Researchers studying the molecular structure of cement found that changing the recipe to 1.5 parts calcium for each part of silica would cut cement’s carbon emissions up to 60% while making the resulting material stronger.
Simple design considerations can make a building greener. The shape and the orientation can affect heating and cooling needs. Natural ventilation with mixed mode systems can alleviate the need for air conditioning even in tropical climates. Mr. Yeang designed the Menara Mesiniaga office building in Selangor, Malaysia, so even elevator lobbies, restrooms and stairwells in the 15-story building get natural ventilation and natural daylight.
Green design includes water management in rainfall harvesting and storing water, so potable water doesn’t have to be used to irrigate the vegetation. Design must close the water cycle within the site, combining water management, water reuse and recycling with sustainable drainage and constructed wetlands for black water treatment, he says.
Originally posted to Perspectives by Catherine Bolgar. For more from Catherine, contributors from the Economist Intelligence Unit along with industry experts, join The Future Realities discussion.
December 18th, 2014 by Akio Moriwaki
Say “architecture in the future,” and you’re likely to think of buildings with a radical design, like the Absolute World Towers near Toronto, which twist some 200 degrees from base to top. But while architecture in the future might still be a feast for the eyes, other senses and feelings are likely to get more satisfaction as well.
“Over the last 100 years, architecture has been a conversation about style,” says David van der Leer, executive director of the Van Alen Institute, a New York-based nonprofit architectural organization dedicated to the belief that design can transform cities, landscapes, and regions to improve people’s lives.
“What still largely is lacking in the conversation is how do we actually respond to the spaces we inhabit. If we know how the mind or body responds to the city, we may look at completely different ways of designing buildings.”
Recently, the institute undertook a project to understand people’s reactions to the city around them. The researchers walked around New York with residents of that city to find out how one, for instance, responds to a busy intersection.
Often the subjects, who were wearing brain monitors, would respond that everything was fine, but “their brain activity says something else,” Mr. van der Leer explains. “If we don’t respond well to structures, why do we build them?”
December 11th, 2014 by Marty Rozmanith
Building Lifecycle Management (BLM) is the practice of designing, constructing, and operating a facility with a single set of interoperable data.
BLM is operationalized via a robust Product Lifecycle Management (PLM)* system, which creates an efficient environment for coordinating complex AEC data.
[*The traditional Product Lifecycle Management term commonly becomes Project Lifecycle Management when applied to AEC.]
Adding BIM data to a PLM system creates a BLM system:
Benefits of BLM
BLM enables BIM Level 3 and can increase construction predictability, long-term value for project owners, and profitability for AEC project contributors.
December 4th, 2014 by Marty Rozmanith
The following is an excerpt from End-To-End Collaboration Enabled by BIM Level 3: An Architecture, Engineering & Construction Industry Solution Based on Manufacturing Best Practices.
Extended Collaboration Enabled by BIM Level 3
An Extended Collaboration model synchronizes productive interactions between designers, suppliers, and builders.
Extended Collaboration proactively addresses errors and omissions, reduces rework, enables predictive process simulations to reduce risk, resolves issues in real-time to drastically reduce RFIs, and improves quality and safety.
Innovative projects delivered by industry-leading design and construction teams have shown that collaboratively planning a building’s structural, façade, HVAC, electric, and interior systems can provide significant productivity gains over siloed processes, which depend on RFIs to reconcile issues.