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Sumit Singhal
Sumit Singhal
Sumit Singhal loves modern architecture. He comes from a family of builders who have built more than 20 projects in the last ten years near Delhi in India. He has recently started writing about the architectural projects that catch his imagination.

Kilic Ali Pasa Hamam in Istanbul, Turkey by Cafer Bozkurt Architecture

 
January 30th, 2015 by Sumit Singhal

Article source: Cafer Bozkurt Architecture

The Kılıç Ali Paşa Hamam was constructed in 1580 by Master Architect Sinan, on behalf of Ottoman Admiral Kılıç Ali Paşa as part of a larger ‘külliye’ complex, in the Tophane district of Istanbul. As the physical manifestation of a unique period in the historical harbor of the Ottoman imperial city, the Kılıç Ali Paşa hamam has become not only part of public space again in the Tophane area, but also part of an overall revitalization of a previously derelict area in the city. 430 years of layered materials and debris, literally ‘embalming’ the surfaces and ‘burying’ the structure, had to be removed in order to identify and restitute the original Sinan building, thus relinking this 1st degree historical monument back to its origins.

General View of the Hamam, Image Courtesy © Cengiz Karliova

General View of the Hamam, Image Courtesy © Cengiz Karliova

  • Architects: Cafer Bozkurt Architecture
  • Project: Kilic Ali Pasa Hamam
  • Location: Tophane, Istanbul, Turkey
  • Photography: Ahmet ERTUG, Cengiz KARLIOVA, Oguz MERIC, Ergin IREN, Sibel OZKARS
  • Total Site Area: 865 m2
  • Total Floor Area: 935 m2
  • Year of Design: 2006-2009
  • Year of Construction: 2009-2011
  • Project Team: Sibel OZKARS, Architect; Defne BOZKURT, Architect, Archaeologist; Hasan YIRMIBESOGLU, Architect; Vedat KAYA, Draughtsman

Entrance Façade, Image Courtesy © Ergin Iren

Entrance Façade, Image Courtesy © Ergin Iren

  • Mechanical Engineer: Coskun Ozbas Engineering
  • Electrical Engineer: 3A Engineering
  • Constultants:
    • History of Architecture: Dogan KUBAN, Prof. Dipl. Architect
    • Structural Engineering: Feridun CILI, Prof. Dr. MS Civil Engineer
    • Building Physics: Erol GURDAL, Prof. Dr. Dipl. Architect
    • Architectural Restoration: Sirin AKINCI, Dr. Restorator M. Architect
Entrance Façade, Image Courtesy © Cengiz Karliova

Entrance Façade, Image Courtesy © Cengiz Karliova

The architecture of the Hamam is mostly characterized by its authentic masonry construction, lead roof cladding on the domes, and use of natural stone on the interior. Damage of the main structural walls, domes and arches was mainly due to the weathering effects of water, frost, vegetation and lack of maintenance. Many heavy layers of cement, plaster, bitumen and tiles had replaced most of the original lead-cladding and severely damaged the 16th-century brickwork. This unnatural weight destroyed the building’s structural integrity, led to asymmetric settling and thus made it more susceptible to the damaging effects of numerous earthquakes.

Restoration of the Exterior Façades, Image Courtesy © Sibel Ozkars (old), Cengiz Karliova (new)

Restoration of the Exterior Façades, Image Courtesy © Sibel Ozkars (old), Cengiz Karliova (new)

This project incorporates custom construction techniques, such as traditional stonemasonry, woodworking and lead roof-workmanship, as well as the use of original building materials to preserve the original character of the structure. Custom-made bricks, traditional ornaments, special windows and the unique ‘horasani’ mortar mixture were designed and produced specifically for this building.

Restoration of the Exterior Façades, Image Courtesy © Ergin Iren

Restoration of the Exterior Façades, Image Courtesy © Ergin Iren

In terms of new constructions and materials used in the Hamam, contemporary design and aesthetic compatibility of new and old was key, such as the zinc cladding and steel construction used in the new service addition in the back garden. The former water storage and original heating space is correspondingly converted into the modern technical center utilizing new mechanical and electrical installations without damaging the original architecture. Natural ventilation is used for the exchange of used air to the outside and circulation of fresh air within the building. The skylight on top of the main dome of the camegah allows used air to rise and flow out, thus forcing cool outside air to be drawn into the building naturally through window openings in the lower areas.

Restoration of the Lead Roofs, Image Courtesy © Ergin Iren

Restoration of the Lead Roofs, Image Courtesy © Ergin Iren

Great spatial deformation happened over the centuries inside the entrance-dressing space underneath the main dome. In the 16th-century interior, there were only stone divan platforms set against the walls where visitors would sit, hang their clothes on hooks and relax after bathing. Over time, demand for private places to dress and leave belongings influenced the interior architecture. Wooden dressing rooms were added, finally culminating in a full two-storey wood construction built in the 1950’s, concealing the interior walls and architectural details.

Restoration of the Lead Roofs, Image Courtesy © Ergin Iren

Restoration of the Lead Roofs, Image Courtesy © Ergin Iren

A crucial decision in this project was to recover the original Sinan period spatial experience underneath the main dome by removing these dominant 20th century additions. On the ground floor, the stone platforms are now fully visible and outfitted with seating and relaxing areas, thus regaining their lively social function, supported by kitchenette and service functions in the corners. A respectful mezzanine floor, built of solid oak and housing private dressing areas is featured above.

Restoration of the Main Dome and Lead Roofs, Image Courtesy © Ergin Iren

Restoration of the Main Dome and Lead Roofs, Image Courtesy © Ergin Iren

Finally, the Kılıç Ali Paşa Hamam shows a successful case of holistic thinking, considering the building as a whole, rather than just assessing individual elements. Never veering away from scientific methodology and bringing together specialists of various scientific fields (art and architectural historians, archaeologists, chemists), the Kılıç Ali Paşa restoration has succeeded in exposing an original Sinan piece and has brought a delightful Ottoman monument into the contemporary cultural spotlight.

Restoration of the Skylight on the Main Dome, Image Courtesy © Ergin Iren

Restoration of the Skylight on the Main Dome, Image Courtesy © Ergin Iren

Skylight on the Main Dome, Image Courtesy © Cengiz Karliova

Skylight on the Main Dome, Image Courtesy © Cengiz Karliova

Lead Roofs above the Caldarium spaces, Image Courtesy © Cengiz Karliova

Lead Roofs above the Caldarium spaces, Image Courtesy © Cengiz Karliova

Restoration of the Entrance Gate, Image Courtesy © Sibel Ozkars (old), Cengiz Karliova (new)

Restoration of the Entrance Gate, Image Courtesy © Sibel Ozkars (old), Cengiz Karliova (new)

Restoration of the Entrance Gate, Image Courtesy © Sibel Ozkars (old), Cengiz Karliova (new)

Restoration of the Entrance Gate, Image Courtesy © Sibel Ozkars (old), Cengiz Karliova (new)

Camegah (frigidarium) After Restoration, Image Courtesy © Cengiz Karliova

Camegah (frigidarium) After Restoration, Image Courtesy © Cengiz Karliova

Camegah (frigidarium) After Restoration, Image Courtesy © Ergin Iren (old), Ahmet Ertug (new)

Camegah (frigidarium) After Restoration, Image Courtesy © Ergin Iren (old), Ahmet Ertug (new)

Restoration of the doors from tepidarium to caldarium, Image Courtesy © Sibel Ozkars

Restoration of the doors from tepidarium to caldarium, Image Courtesy © Sibel Ozkars

Corridor within the tepidarium and the dome of the caldarium after restoration, Image Courtesy © Ahmet Ertug

Corridor within the tepidarium and the dome of the caldarium after restoration, Image Courtesy © Ahmet Ertug

Sicaklik (caldarium) After Restoration, Image Courtesy © Cengiz Karliova

Sicaklik (caldarium) After Restoration, Image Courtesy © Cengiz Karliova

Sicaklik (caldarium) Before and After Restoration, Image Courtesy © Ergin Iren (old), Cengiz Karliova (new)

Sicaklik (caldarium) Before and After Restoration, Image Courtesy © Ergin Iren (old), Cengiz Karliova (new)

The Kılıç Ali Paşa Complex situated in the urban fabric of the Tophane District., Image Courtesy © Cafer Bozkurt Architecture

The Kılıç Ali Paşa Complex situated in the urban fabric of the Tophane District., Image Courtesy © Cafer Bozkurt Architecture

Revzen Window Detail, Image Courtesy © Cafer Bozkurt Architecture

Revzen Window Detail, Image Courtesy © Cafer Bozkurt Architecture

Window Detail, Image Courtesy © Cafer Bozkurt Architecture

Window Detail, Image Courtesy © Cafer Bozkurt Architecture

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