6.11  Bibliography

Wakerly’s [1994] book describes TTL and CMOS logic thresholds as well as noise margins. The specification of digital I/O interfaces (voltage and current levels) is defined by the JEDEC (part of the Electronic Industries Association, EIA) JC-16 committee standards [JEDEC I/O]. Standards for ESD measurement are not as well defined; companies use a range of specifications: MIL-STD-883, EIAJ, a published model used by AT&T (see, for example, p. 5-13 to p. 5-19 in the AT&T 1995 FPGA data book) as well as JEDEC and ANSI/IEEE standards [JEDEC I/O, JEDEC ESD, ANSI/IEEE ESD]. You are not likely to find any of these standards at the library, but they are available through specialist technical document distributors (typical 1996 costs were about $25 for the JEDEC documents; catalogs are generally free of charge). These standards are not technical reports, most only contain a few pages, but they are the source of the parameters that you see in data sheets.

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